What’s in this module?
You will be presented with a pediatric client who is very ill with a disease that can be dangerous to children or adolescents. Most of the clients will be prescribed more than one medication and some will also have IV fluids. You will need to determine the correct doses and times for each prescription for the client. Use your judgment and problem-solving skills to put it all together for each client.
With children and adolescents, the age and weight of the client are essential items to know. Assessment of the client’s developmental age is also important because the developmental age will determine your approach to the client, the client’s level of understanding, and the client’s degree of fear of medical procedures and medications. You will learn more about developmental age in other courses in your nursing curriculum.
Pediatric clients are susceptible to illnesses not often seen in adults. Illnesses that can be minor in adults can be fatal in children due to their smaller body size, lack of immunity or immunizations, and tendency toward dehydration. Pediatric clients can deteriorate very quickly and must be observed carefully.
What diseases are dangerous to children? Information from the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) in Atlanta indicates that continuing problems for children include tetanus, influenza, hepatitis B, hepatitis A, rubella, influenza type B, measles, pertussis, pneumococcal disease, rotavirus, mumps, chickenpox, and diphtheria. Polio is still a threat in other countries, but is not now a concern in the U.S. (https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/parents/diseases/child/14-diseases.html)
Diseases dangerous to children and adolescents differ by age group. Parents and healthcare providers can be referred to the CDC website that breaks down illnesses by age group. (https://www.cdc.gov/parents/index.html)
Summary of problem types in this module
All the problem types you have previously encountered will be reviewed in this module, with special attention given to considerations applicable to pediatric clients. You should be especially aware of your client’s age and weight.
Equivalents to know
You should know all your equivalents by now.
Rounding rules to know
You should know all your rounding rules by now.
Starting factors and answer units
You should know all your SF and AU by now. Please refer to previous modules as needed for information about the problem types you will see in this module.
Administering Pediatric Medications
Many medication orders for pediatric clients will be weight-based. Always check the safe dose range for medications if one exists. Other medications will have doses by age range. You will need to check the client’s age against the drug manufacturer’s doses listed for the client’s age.
The maximum volume of IM medications should be limited according to the client’s age. Here are some guidelines:
Newborn – 0.5 mL
Infant to 5 years old – 1 mL
2 mL – 6 to 12 years old
2-3 mL – adolescent
Adjustments will be made if the client is smaller or larger than the typical range for the client’s age. Needle sizes will also be smaller, ranging from 5/8” for a newborn to 1 1/2” for an adolescent as the chart below illustrates.
www.immunize.org/catg.d/p2020.pdf Retrieved 7/16/19
IV fluids must be restricted and carefully monitored to avoid overloading the client. Here is a standard protocol for calculating maintenance IV fluid amounts for pediatric clients. Note that 2400 mL in 24 hours is the maximum for larger children. Smaller children receive much smaller amounts. (Reminder: cc = mL)
https://i.pinimg.com/originals/d1/6f/d1/d16fd1af010b4110584497276b018890.jpg Retrieved 7/16/19
IV fluids typically used in pediatrics include:
https://www.rch.org.au/clinicalguide/guideline_index/Intravenous_fluids/ Retrieved 7/16/19
IV fluids are frequently administered by micropump, especially for younger children. A micropump has the capability of delivering IV fluids to the tenths of milliliters as opposed to whole numbers. Be careful to note if a micropump is specified.
3.imimg.com/data3/OY/IY/MY-3729413/burette-set-500x500.jpg Retrieved 7/16/19
For very small amounts of IV fluid, a burette set can be used. The fluid to be infused is transferred into the chamber of the burette. An IV bag may be connected to the top of the burette but is optional. Burettes are used for children for better control of the fluids to be infused. Filling the burette with only the fluid to be infused in one hour will prevent fluid overload.
The illustration below shows a burette connected to a bag of normal saline. The small connecting tube allows the nurse to refill the burette as needed without contaminating the sterility of the fluid or the burette.
https://www.apsf.org/wp-content/uploads/newsletters/2018/3302/figure-1-burette-perpendicular.jpg Retrieved 7/17/19
For the cases below and in the practice problems you will need to use the information about injections and IV fluids from this module. You will also need to use the information presented about medications and the disease conditions presented in the cases.
https://assets.babycenter.com/ims/2013/04/measles_4x3.jpg Retrieved 7/17/19
Baby A is a six month old child who weighs 7.6 kg. The client has been admitted to your hospital due to a fever not controlled at home, pneumonia, and dehydration. These symptoms are complications of measles. Baby A is clearly uncomfortable and cries frequently. The baby is on bed rest and oxygen at 1 L/min via pediatric nasal cannula.
The healthcare provider has written the following prescriptions:
Find the ml/hr to set on the micropump you will be using.
Does Baby A need acetaminophen for a fever? Do you need to call the healthcare provider? How many ml of acetaminophen liquid will you give Baby A when the medication is needed?
How many ml of ceftriaxone will you inject into the 125 ml of NS per dose? What is the flow rate you will use on your micropump to give the medication?
How many capsules of vitamin A will you give?
***This case is an example, but try to find the solutions on your own before you look at the answers below. Refer to previous modules as needed.***
Case Example: Baby A - Solutions to Case Questions
SF = 7.6 kg
AU = ml
Equivalents needed:
100 ml = 1 kg (ml = cc)
Equation:
SF = 7.6 kg
AU = ml
Equivalents needed:
10 mg = 1 kg
5 ml = 160 mg
Equation:
Temperature conversion
Give the acetaminophen and call the healthcare provider.
SF = 7.6 kg
AU = ml
Equivalents needed:
75 mg = 1 kg
10 ml = 250 mg
Equation:
22.8 ml divided by 2 doses = 11.4 ml ceftriaxone per dose to inject into IV fluid
150 ml IV fluid over 3 hours = 50 ml/hr
SF = 100,000 units
AU = capsules
Equivalents needed:
1 capsule = 25,000 units
Equation:
https://www.liveaction.org/news/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/rihanna-2.jpg Retrieved 7/21/19
Teen B is 14 years old and weighs 120 lb. The client is at home in a rural location and you are serving as a visiting nurse. The client has problems with a bacterial infection of a wound. You already have prescriptions to dress the wound and apply a topical antibiotic. The healthcare provider has prescribed additional measures to care for this client:
Calculate the flow rate in gtts/min for your primary IV infusion.
Find the amount of clindamycin to give per day and per dose. Then calculate the flow rate in gtt/min for your secondary IV infusion.
https://healthy.kaiserpermanente.org/static/drugency/images/AKN01200.JPG Retrieved 7/20/19
How many tablets of each strength will you give the client per dose?
What is your new flow rate for the primary IV in gtt/min?
cdn.mamamia.com.au/wp/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/12050817/whooping_cough_facebook.jpg Retrieved 7/16/19
Child C has been admitted to the hospital with pertussis (whooping cough). The client is 3 years old and weighs 33 pounds. Child C has been coughing so violently that nausea, vomiting, and seizures have been observed by the parents. The client is on oxygen at 1 L/min via pediatric nasal cannula and has IV access.
You have further orders for this client:
You have on hand chlorpromazine 25 mg/ml.
How many ml will you give the client?
Information about lorazepam:Dose for 3 year old child is 0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg IV X1.Push over two minutes. May repeat 0.05 mg/kg X1 after 10-15 minutes.
Calculate the safe dose range for this client (upper and lower limits).Is the healthcare provider’s order safe?
Change lorazepam to 0.075 mg/kg IV X1. Push over two minutes. May repeat 0.05 mg/kg X1 after 10-15 minutes for seizure activity.
How many ml will you give the client for the first dose?For the second dose?
Retrieved 7/20/19
You have on hand the 120 mg suppositories.The client’s current temperature is 38 degrees Celsius.
What is the maximum dose per day based on the child’s weight?Do you need to give the first dose now?
Are the prescribed doses under the maximum mg per dose? How many ml will you give the client on day one? How many ml will you give the client on days 2-5?
ep.yimg.com/ay/yhst-135855760451349/azithromycin-suspension-100mg-cherry-16.jpg Retrieved 7/20/19
images5.fanpop.com/image/photos/25200000/1x12-Code-Breaker-teen-wolf-25286361-1280-720.jpg Retrieved 7/16/19
Teen D is in isolation at a hospital due to active tuberculosis. The client is 13 years old and weighs 115 lb. Oxygen therapy and IV access have already been established. Continuous IV therapy with LR at 125 ml/hr has been started.
Healthcare providers at the hospital are using CDC guidelines for treatment of TB. The protocol appears below.
https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/treatment/tbdisease.htm Retrieved 7/22/19
The healthcare providers have decided to use Regimen 1 in the intensive phase to begin treatment. Since the client is hospitalized, the 7 days/week regimen will be used for the 8 weeks long intensive phase (56 doses). After discharge, the client will be on the 18 weeks of the continuation phase of medications.
The client’s prescriptions are below.
Your drug information gives the following limits:
Isoniazid 10-15 mg/kg IM daily for 6-18 months.
Calculate the upper and lower limits for prescription of this medication. Is the prescription correct? Also refer back to the CDC protocol, regimen 1 intensive phase for 7 days/week.
The medication comes in powder form and must be reconstituted.
https://www.drugs.com/pro/images/cb59a48c-f66b-4ea0-809c-de0e4be2f8c2/rifampin-for-injection-usp-2.jpg Retrieved 7/22/19
How much diluent will you use? What is the medication strength after reconstitution? How many ml of reconstituted medication will you inject into the IV fluid per dose? What rate will you set on the micropump for the infusion?
You have on hand 400 mg tablets.
Drug information:
Ethambutol 800 mg daily for client 5 y/o and older 40-55 kg.
Ethambutol 1200 mg daily for client 5 y/o and older 56-75 kg.
Ethambutol 1600 mg daily for client 5 y/o and older 76-90 kg.
Is the prescription correct? What daily dose should the client receive? How many tablets will you give?
You have on hand 500 mg tablets.
Drug information:
Pyrazinamide 1000 mg daily for client 2 y/o and older 40-55 kg.
Pyrazinamide 1500 mg daily for client 2 y/o and older 56-75 kg.
Pyrazinamide 2000 mg daily for client 2 y/o and older 76-90 kg.
Is the prescription correct? What daily dose should the client receive? How many tablets will you give?
Change isoniazid to 12 mg/kg IM daily X 56 days.
You have on hand isoniazid 100 mg/ml.
How many ml will you give per dose?
Change ethambutol to 800 mg orally daily for 56 days.
How many tablets will you give per dose?
https://172dl91lpvim34sra43ilr17-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/5631279558_1e4d3be3cb_b-1024x525.jpg Retrieved 7/22/19
Child E was admitted to a hospital with appendicitis and now is having an appendectomy. Child E is 10 years old and weighs 65 pounds. IV access has been established.
The client has the following prescriptions:
How many ml will you give? How many ml per minute?
drugline.org/img/drug/ondansetron-injection-17054_1.jpg Retrieved 7/23/19
How much diluent will you use to reconstitute this medication?How many ml will you give the client per dose?How many ml/hr will you set on the micropump?
sterimaxinc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/piperaillin-tazobactam-3-375g-300x300.png Retrieved 7/23/19
Drug information
https://reference.medscape.com/drug/zosyn-piperacillin-tazobactam-342485#11 Retrieved 7/23/19
Your drug information states that the allowable dose is 15-20 mcg/kg IV every 4-6 hours.What are the upper and lower limits per dose?
How many ml of hydromorphone will you give the client for each dose? How many ml per minute will you set on the micropump?
img.medscapestatic.com/pi/features/drugdirectory/octupdate/BAX-121-.jpg Retrieved 7/23/19
What flow rate will you set of the IV pump?
Case: Teen B - Answers to Case Questions
Teen B is 14 years old and weighs 120 lb. The client is at home in a rural location and you are serving as a visiting nurse. The client has problems with a bacterial infection of a wound. You already have prescriptions to dress the wound and apply a topical antibiotic. The healthcare provider has prescribed additional measures to care for this client:
Continuous IV infusion of LR 1000 mL over 12 hours. No IV pump is available, but you have an IV pole. The IV set you have on hand has a drop factor of 20 gtts/mL.
Calculate the flow rate in gtts/min for your primary IV infusion.
Continuous IV infusion by gravity
SF = 1 min
AU = gtts
Equivalents:
1000 mL = 12 hours
20 gtts = 1 mL
60 min = 1 hour
Equation:
Clindamycin 25 mg/kg/day IV divided every 8 hours. Give each dose in 250 mL D5W over 3 hours. The secondary IV set you have on hand has a drop factor of 15 gtts/mL. See the vial for the dosage strength of clindamycin.
Find the amount of clindamycin to give per day and per dose. Then calculate the flow rate in gtt/min for your secondary IV infusion.
Clindamycin IV injection
SF = 120 lbs
AU = mL
Equivalents:
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
25 mg = 1 kg
50 mL = 300 mg
Equation:
Since every 8 hours means three times a day, to determine how many mL to give each dose divide the total by 3 doses.
Note: When determining the amount of medication per dose, do not round until after you calculate the amount for the individual dose.
IV flow rate
SF = 1 min
AU = gtts
Equivalents:
1 hr = 60 min
250 ml = 3 hrs
15 gtt = 1 mL
Equation:
Acetaminophen 650 mg PO every 4 hours as needed for pain. Maximum 1 g every 4 hours and 4 g/day from all sources. You have on hand tablets containing 500 mg and tablets containing 325 mg. The client is complaining of pain and needs a dose now.
How many tablets of each strength will you give the client per dose?
Acetaminophen tablets
SF = 150 mg
AU = tablets
Equivalents:
1 tab = 325 mg
Equation:
According to the rounding rule for tablets, an answer less than a half tablet exactly rounds down to the previous whole number. In this case, that would be zero tablets. That does not help you get to the needed 650 mg dose. The closest amount that can be given with the tablets on hand would be 0.5 tablet. However, a whole 650 mg tablet and a half of a 325 mg tablet would be 662.5 mg.
You would need to call the healthcare provider and ask for an order for 662.5 mg until 650 mg tablets are available.
You leave the client to make another home visit then return to Teen B after 3 hours have elapsed. The client’s IV fluid order has changed to continuous LR 1000 mL over 8 hours.
What is your new flow rate for the primary IV in gtt/min?
Adjustment to IV
SF = 1 min
AU = gtts
Equivalents:
1000 mL = 8 hrs
20 gtts = 1 mL
Equation:
Case: Child C - Answers to Case Questions
Child C has been admitted to the hospital with pertussis (whooping cough). The client is 3 years old and weighs 33 pounds. Child C has been coughing so violently that nausea, vomiting, and seizures have been observed by the parents. The client is on oxygen at 1 L/min via pediatric nasal cannula and has IV access.
You have further orders for this client:
Chlorpromazine 0.55 mg/kg IM every 6 hours as needed for nausea/vomiting. Give the first dose now. Maximum 40 mg/day IM.
You have on hand chlorpromazine 25 mg/mL.
How many mL will you give the client?
SF = 33 lbs
AU = mL
Equivalents:
1 kg = 2.2 lb
0.55 mg = 1 kg
1 mL = 25 mg
Equation:
Lorazepam 2 mg IV push after next seizure.
Information about lorazepam: Dose for 3 year old child is 0.05 – 0.1 mg/kg IV X1. Push over two minutes. May repeat 0.05 mg/kg X1 after 10-15 minutes.
Calculate the safe dose range for this client (upper and lower limits). Is the healthcare provider’s order safe?
Upper limit
SF = 33 lbs
AU = mg
Equivalents:
0.1 mg = 1 kg
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
Equation:
Lower limit
SF = 33 lbs
AU = mg
Equivalents:
0.05 mg = 1 kg
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
Equation:
Do not give the medication. The 2 mg dose prescribed is above the upper limit for this client. Call the healthcare provider for a new prescription.
Revised prescription for lorazepam:
Change lorazepam to 0.075 mg/kg IV X1. Push over two minutes. May repeat 0.05 mg/kg X1 after 10-15 minutes for seizure activity.
How many ml will you give the client for the first dose? For the second dose?
First Dose
SF = 33 lb
AU = ml
Equivalents:
0.075 mg = 1 kg
1 mL = 4 mg
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
Equation:
Remaining Doses
SF = 33 lb
AU = ml
Equivalents:
0.05 mg = 1 kg
1 ml = 4 mg
1 kg = 2.2 lb
Equation:
Acetaminophen 120 mg PR (per rectum) every 6 hours as needed for pain or fever above 99 degrees Fahrenheit. Maximum 4 doses in 24 hours. Do not exceed 75 mg/kg/day.
You have on hand the 120 mg suppositories. The client’s current temperature is 38 degrees Celsius.
What is the maximum dose per day based on the child’s weight? Do you need to give the first dose now?
SF = 33 lbs
AU = mg
Equivalents:
75 mg = 1 kg
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
Equation:
Temperature:
Give the suppository now.
Azithromycin liquid 10 mg/kg orally daily (max 500 mg) on the first day then 5 mg/kg orally daily for four days (max 250 mg per day). See the package label.
Are the prescribed doses under the maximum mg per dose? How many mL will you give the client on day one? How many mL will you give the client on days 2-5?
Day 1
SF = 33 lbs
AU = mg
Equivalents:
10 mg = 1 kg
1 kg = 2.2 lb
Equation:
Days 2-5
SF = 33 lbs
AU = mg
Equivalents:
5 mg = 1 kg
1 kg = 2.2 lbs
Equation:
Both prescriptions are below the maximum dose for the client.
Medication strength is 100 mg per 5 mL.
Dose for day 1
SF = 150 mg
AU = mL
Equivalents:
100 mg = 5 mL
Equation:
Dose for days 2-5
SF = 75 mg
AU = mL
Equivalents:
100 mg = 5 mL
Equation:
Case: Teen D - Answers to Case Questions
Teen D is in isolation at a hospital due to active tuberculosis. The client is 13 years old and weighs 115 lbs. Oxygen therapy and IV access have already been established. Continuous IV therapy with LR at 125 mL/hr has been started.
Healthcare providers at the hospital are using CDC guidelines for treatment of TB. The healthcare providers have decided to use Regimen 1 in the intensive phase to begin treatment. Since the client is hospitalized, the 7 days/week regimen will be used for the 8 weeks long intensive phase (56 doses). After discharge, the client will be on the 18 weeks of the continuation phase of medications.
Isoniazid 470 mg IM daily X 40 days.
Your drug information gives the following limits:
Isoniazid 10-15 mg/ kg IM daily for 6-18 months.
Calculate the upper and lower limits for prescription of this medication. Is the prescription correct? Also refer back to the CDC protocol, regimen 1 intensive phase for 7 days/week.
Upper limit
SF = 115 lbs
AU = mg
Equivalents:
15 mg = 1 kg
1 kg = 2.2 lb
Equation:
Lower limit
SF = 115 lbs
AU = mg
Equivalents:
10 mg = 1 kg
1 kg = 2.2 lb
Equation:
Don’t give the medication. Call the healthcare provider. The prescribed dose is below the lower limit and may not be effective. Also, the CDC protocol for 7 days per week calls for 56 doses in the intensive phase for the regimen being used.
Rifampin 15 mg/kg/day IV in 100 ml of D5W. Infuse over 30 minutes. Continue for a total of 56 days.
The medication comes in powder form and must be reconstituted.
How much diluent will you use? What is the medication strength after reconstitution? How many mL of reconstituted medication will you inject into the IV fluid per dose? What rate will you set on the micropump for the infusion?
Info from the rifampin label:
Use 10 ml of sterile diluent.
After reconstitution 60 mg = 1 ml.
Amount of medication to add to the IV fluid:
SF = 115 lb
AU = ml
Equivalents:
15 mg = 1 kg
1 ml = 60 mg
1 kg = 2.2 lb
Equation:
The 13.1 mL of reconstituted medication will be added to 100 ml D5W.
The 100 ml of D5W is to be given over 30 min. A flow rate of 200 ml/hr should be set on the pump to give 100 ml in 30 minutes.
SF = 1 hr
AU = mL
Equivalents:
100 mL = 30 mins
1 hr = 60 mins
Equation:
Ethambutol 1200 mg orally daily for 56 days.
You have on hand 400 mg tablets.
Drug information:
Ethambutol 800 mg daily for client 5 y/o and older 40-55 kg.
Ethambutol 1200 mg daily for client 5 y/o and older 56-75 kg.
Ethambutol 1600 mg daily for client 5 y/o and older 76-90 kg.
Is the prescription correct? What daily dose should the client receive? How many tablets will you give?
SF = 115 lb
AU = kg
Equivalents:
1 kg =2.2 lb
Equation:
Based on a weight of 52.3 kg, the dose for the client should be 800 mg daily instead of the ordered 1200 mg. Do not give the medication. Call the healthcare provider for a new prescription.
Pyrazinamide 1000 mg orally daily for 56 days.
You have on hand 500 mg tablets.
Drug information:
Pyrazinamide 1000 mg daily for client 2 y/o and older 40-55 kg.
Pyrazinamide 1500 mg daily for client 2 y/o and older 56-75 kg.
Pyrazinamide 2000 mg daily for client 2 y/o and older 76-90 kg.
Is the prescription correct? What daily dose should the client receive? How many tablets will you give?
The prescribed dose is correct for 52.3 kg.
SF = 1000 mg
AU = tabs
Equivalents:
1 tab = 500 mg
Equation:
You have called the healthcare provider and have a revised prescription:
Change isoniazid to 12 mg/kg IM daily X 56 days.
You have on hand isoniazid 100 mg/ml.
How many ml will you give per dose?
SF = 52.3 kg
AU = ml
Equivalents:
1 kg = 12 mg
1 ml = 100 mg
Equation:
You have called the healthcare provider and have a revised prescription:
Change ethambutol to 800 mg orally daily for 56 days.
How many tablets will you give per dose?
SF = 800 mg
AU = tabs
Equivalent:
1 tab = 400 mg
Equation:
Case: Child E - Answers to Case Questions
Child E was admitted to a hospital with appendicitis and now is having an appendectomy. Child E is 10 years old and weighs 65 pounds. IV access has been established.
The client has the following prescriptions:
How many mL will you give? How many mL per minute?
SF = 65 lb
AU = mL
Equivalents:
0.1 mg = 1 kg
1 mL = 2 mg
1 kg = 2.2 lb
Equation:
To determine the mL to administer per minute, divide 1.5 mL by 15 to get 0.1 mL/min slow IVP.
Piperacillin/tazobactram (Zosyn) 300 mg/kg/day IV divided every 8 hours X 10 days. Give in 125 mL NS over 30 min. Stop primary infusion while administering. Flush IV site with 100 mL NS before and after administration.
How much diluent will you use to reconstitute this medication? How many mL will you give the client per dose? How many mL/hr will you set on the micropump?
Diluent for the medication:
The drug information indicates to reconstitute with 5 mL diluent per 1 g. The label on the vial indicates that there are 3.375 g of medication in the vial.
SF = 3.375 g
AU = mL
Equivalents:
1 g = 5 mL
Equation:
Medication per dose:
SF = 65 lbs
AU = mL
Equivalents:
300 mg = 1 kg
16.9 ml = 3.375 g
1 kg = 2.2 lb
1g = 1000 mg
3 doses
Equation:
Add the 14.8 mL to 125 mL NS to be given over 30 minutes. Determine the flow rate to set on the pump.
SF = 1hr
AU = mL
Equivalents:
125 mL = 30 mins
1 hr = 60 mins
Equation:
Hydromorphone 17 mcg/kg IV every six hours in 100 ml NS. Give over 20 minutes.
Your drug information states that the allowable dose is 15-20 mcg/kg IV every 4-6 hours. What are the upper and lower limits per dose?
How many mL of hydromorphone will you give the client for each dose? How many mL per minute will you set on the micropump?
Upper limit per dose
SF = 65 lb
AU = mcg
Equivalents:
1 kg = 2.2 lb
20 mcg = 1 kg
Equation:
Lower limit per dose
SF = 65 lb
AU = mcg
Equivalents:
1 kg = 2.2 lb
15 mcg = 1 kg
Equation:
Dose for the client
SF = 65 lb
AU = mL
Equivalents:
17 mcg = 1 kg
1 mL = 2 mg
1 kg = 2.2 lb
1 mg = 1000 mcg
Equation:
Add the 0.25 mL to 100 ml NS. Give over 20 minutes. What is the flow rate to set on the IV pump?
SF = 1 hr
AU = mL
Equivalents:
100 mL = 20 mins
1 hr = 60 mins
Equation:
Continuous infusion of LR 1000 mL over 10 hours
What flow rate will you set on the IV pump?
SF = 1 hr
AU = mL
Equivalents:
1000 mL = 10 hours
Equation:
Soft diet, oxygen therapy at 1 L/min, activity as tolerated, incentive spirometer after surgery.