It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

# MATH 1401: Elementary Statistics (Minitab and Excel)

## Measures of Variation

Probability and Contingency (Two-Way Tables)

It is often necessary to "guess" about the outcome of an event in order to make a decision. Politicians study polls to guess their likelihood of winning an election.  Teachers choose a particular course of study based on what they think students can comprehend.  Doctors choose treatments for various diseases based on their assessment of likely results.  You may have visited a casino where people play games chosen because of the belief that the likelihood of winning is good.

Contingency or Two-way tables are another way to look at data and access the probabilities. These tables can let you look at sub-sections of the group with counts and calculate the probabilities from the counts.